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Saturday, June 28, 2008

Air travel hand baggage rules

There are heightened security measures in place at all UK airports, with strict rules on what you can and can't carry in your hand baggage.

It's important to know these rules so you can pack accordingly and avoid delays at airport security.

How many items of hand baggage can you take on board?

At most UK airports you can now take more than one item of hand baggage on board with you - the rules were relaxed slightly in January 2008.

The airports affected are:

* Aberdeen, Benbecula, Birmingham, Cambridge, Cardiff, City of Derry
* Dundee, Edinburgh, Exeter, Farnborough, Filton, Gatwick
* George Best Belfast City Airport, Glasgow, Gloucestershire, Guernesy
* Hawarden, Heathrow, Humberside, Inverness, Islay, Isle of Man
* Kent International, Kirkwall, London City, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich
* Plymouth, Prestwick, Southampton, Southend, Stansted, Stornaway, Sumburgh
* Warton, Wick

However, some airlines have their own restrictions on the number of items of hand baggage that you can take into the aircraft cabin with you. Please check with your airline before flying.

How big can hand baggage be?

The maximum size for an item of hand baggage is 56cm x 45cm x 25cm. But again, some airlines will have their own restrictions, so it's best to check with them first.

Items over the maximum size will not be allowed in the aircraft cabin and must be checked in with your hold baggage, except for the following:

*Pushchairs, walking aids and wheelchairs
*You can take pushchairs, walking aids and wheelchairs on board the plane, but they will need to be security screened.
*Large musical instruments
*Some airlines may let you carry a musical instrument as a second piece of hand baggage, but it will need to be security screened.You may also have to make special arrangements such as buying an extra seat. If you plan to travel with a large musical instrument it's best to confirm the details with the airline at the time of booking.

What can you carry in your hand baggage?


Wherever possible you should pack liquids in your hold baggage. This is is because there are restrictions on the amount of liquid you can take into the aircraft cabin in your hand baggage.

The following are all considered liquids:

* all drinks, including water, soup and syrups
* cosmetics and toiletries, including creams, lotions, oils, perfumes, mascara and lipstick
* sprays, including shaving foam, hairspray and spray deodorant
* pastes, including toothpaste
* gels, including hair and shower gel
* contact lens solution
* any other solutions and items of similar consistency
* lighters

If you need certain liquids during the flight, you can take them into the cabin but only in limited quantities, as follows:

* you can carry small quantities of liquids in containers that can hold no more than 100ml
* containers that can hold more than 100ml are not allowed, even if they are only part full
* the containers must be carried in a single, transparent, re-sealable plastic bag, which can hold no more than a litre and measures approximately 20cm x 20cm
* the contents must fit comfortably inside the plastic bag so it can can be sealed
* each passenger can carry only one of these bags


Lighters are considered to be liquids and can be put inside the plastic bag or screened separately, as long as they would fit in the bag. You should not put a lighter inside your hand baggage but keep it on your person throughout the flight. Lighters are not allowed in hold baggage.
Essential medicines, including inhalers

You are allowed to carry essential medicines on board the aircraft.You may be asked to verify your medicine at security. This could mean tasting it or applying it to your skin.

If you need to carry essential medicines in containers of more than 100ml, you will need some supporting documentation from a relevant medical professional (a letter from your doctor, for example) and prior approval from the airline. This applies to all medicines - from cough mixture to insulin.

Remember, just carry what you need for the journey in your hand baggage. Extra supplies and/or larger containers can go in your hold baggage.
Baby food and bottles

You can take liquid baby food or sterilised water onto the aircraft in your hand baggage.You are allowed to take enough for the journey - in some cases this may be over 100ml. The adult carrying the baby food or water may be asked to verify it by tasting.
Goods bought at the airport

You can take anything you buy after passing through security into the aircraft cabin with you. This includes bottled water, wines and spirits, fragrances and cosmetics of any size.

Thursday, June 26, 2008

Transportation in Japan


In 1872, passenger service began with a steam locomotive that linked Shimbashi station, in Tokyo, to the nearby city of Yokohama. This set the stage for a nationwide rail network. After 17 years, a railway system was established that linked the main cities along the old Tokaido (Eastern Sea Route) so that a person could travel from Tokyo to Osaka by train. Now, along with the development of automobile and air transportation, important railway services have gradually shifted to long-distance intercity transport, such as the Shinkansen and commuter lines. Commuter lines carry people from their homes in the suburbs back and forth to work.

Of the total 1,142,000 km of roads in Japan, 73% is paved. Construction of expressways (toll roads) began in the 1960's and has faced many challenges: the nature of the terrain, high concentration of factories and housing, high land prices along the routes, and added reinforcement needed to withstand earthquakes. Construction costs are the world's highest and therefore, the tolls are also high.


International and domestic airlines didn't get started in Japan until 1953. This was due to the fact that after World War II, the Japanese weren't allowed to have passenger airlines by order of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP).

Haneda, Tokyo International Airport, was Japan's first commercial airport and it first opened in 1931. Until the opening of the New Tokyo International Airport in 1978, it was both a domestic and international airport. With the opening of the New Tokyo International Airport, Narita Airport, it is about 65 km outside Tokyo. 38 countries, as of 1997, with a total of 50 airlines used the airport. It is Japan's largest airport and handles over 25 million passengers per year and a little over 1.5 million metric tons of air freight. These incredible numbers put it at sixth in the world for passengers and first in the world for freight.

Kansai International Airport, which opened in 1994 handles most of the domestic flights and all of the international flights to the Kansai regions. This airport, which replaced the Osaka International Airport, Itami Airport, is actually on an artificial island and operates 24 hours a day.

Tuesday, June 24, 2008

Dump Road Bridge

Historic Name: Dump Road Bridge
Mn/DOT Bridge Number: Bridge No. L-2733
Bridge Type: Pratt through truss
County: Rice
City/Township: Walcott Twp.
Crossing: Twp. Rd. 45 over Straight River
Contractor: A.Y. Bayne and Company, Minneapolis
Year Built: 1904
Overall Length: 134.2 feet
Overall Width: 16.2 feet

Adapted from the National Register of Historic Places nomination form prepared by Fredric Quivik and Dale Martin, Renewable Technologies, Inc. The Dump Road Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.

Summary of Historic Significance

The Dump Road Bridge is historically significant as an excellent example of a pin-connected Pratt through truss resting on a substructure of paired concrete-filled tubular steel piers. The truss and substructure types were common around the turn-of-the-century. The bridge is also significant for its association with bridge builder, A.Y. Bayne, an important Minnesota bridge contractor. Bayne began his long career in Minnesota as an agent for other bridge firms, and in 1903 formed his own enterprise, A.Y. Bayne & Company. This bridge is one of the earliest survivors of Bayne's long career as an independent bridge builder. It is also significance in local history. The bridge is an example of an unexpected effect of railroad construction on a township, in particular its road network, as grading for the rail line altered the channel of the Straight River. Although the abutments may be relatively new, the integrity of the bridge remains good.

As Minnesota's population grew in the second half of the 19th century, a system of transportation evolved which featured railroad lines and a web a local roads leading from rural areas to shipping points along the railroads. These roads needed bridges over rivers and streams to insure year-round travel. The first bridges in Minnesota were constructed of wood, but in the late 1860s and early 1870s, local governments in the state began to build wrought iron bridges because of long-term cost advantages. After early experimentation with a variety of structural configurations, the pin-connected Pratt truss became the most widely used type of wrought iron bridge. By the early 1890s, steel had supplanted wrought iron as the structural material of choice, but the pin-connected Pratt remained the most widely used configuration into the 20th century.

Built in 1904 for Walcott Township by A.Y. Bayne and Company of Minneapolis, the Dump Road Bridge was erected to replace a ford for the township road which had been located about one quarter mile to the south. Shortly after the Burlington Cedar Rapids and Northern Railroad (part of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad system) built its line to Faribault along the Straight River, the township board met with the railroad's engineer asking that the water at the ford be lowered. Construction of the roadbed for the tracks along the river had evidently raised the water level at the ford. Later, the township board claimed damages against the railroad for interference with the ford and in a 1903 settlement, the B.C.R.& N.R.R. paid Walcott Township $2,000. Prior to construction of the bridge, the township board established a new right-of-way for the township road along the east side of the river to reach the bridge location. Next, the voters of Walcott Township approved the sale of bonds worth $1,400 to pay the additional cost of a new bridge, the $2,000 from the railroad would also be applied to construction of the bridge. In March, 1904, the township board approved payment to A.Y. Bayne for construction of the bridge.

Friday, June 20, 2008

Rail - Scotland

Transport Scotland now has responsibility for the majority of rail powers in Scotland, enabling us to plan future services and target investment.

A safe, efficient rail network is good for the economy. Commuter routes are needed to get people to work. Rail links are vital to move freight across the country, such as coal to keep our power stations working. Rail can improve the quality of life for Scotland's communities by connecting people to better access to health, education and employment opportunities.

Scotland’s rail network has around 340 railway stations an d 3,000 kilometres of track; over 62 million passenger journeys are made on the network each year.

What's more, the rail network in the west of Scotland is the most heavily used commuter network in the UK outside London and caters for around 60% of passenger journeys made in Scotland.

Browse this section for information about who's who in the Scottish rail industry, what we do, and what you can expect from us and from Scotland's rail network.

Rail Industry in Scotland

The rail industry in Scotland has faced almost constant change in the ten years since privitisation. The recent transfer of rail responsibilities to Transport Scotland is designed to herald the start of a period of stability, sustained growth and integration.

Britain's rail network was nationalised in 1947 and then privatised in 1994 following the Railways Act 1993, when various private companies became responsible for the railways:

* Railtrack took over the rail infrastructure
* Five freight operating companies (FOCs) and twenty-five train operating companies (TOCs) were awarded franchises
* Three rolling stock companies (ROSCOs) were created to lease rail stock to train operators

The 2000 Transport Act created the Strategic Rail Authority (SRA) and in 2001 Railtrack was put into administration. In 2002, Network Rail acquired Railtrack plc in order to run the railway infrastructure on a not-for-profit basis.

In January 2004, Secretary of State for Transport Alistair Darling announced a review of the structure of the rail industry.

This review resulted in the Railways Act 2005, under which the Scottish Executive (now Scottish Government) and the UK Government agreed that Scottish Ministers will take greater responsibility for rail powers in Scotland, including:

* Transfer of the SRA's powers to manage and monitor the performance of ScotRail services
* Sole responsibility for securing future ScotRail franchises
* Power to take long term, strategic decisions about future investment
* Power to fund and specify where resources are targeted by Network Rail on track maintenance and investment in Scotland

Safety and the licensing of railway operators will remain reserved to UK Ministers.

In June 2004 the Scottish Executive published the transport white paper Scotland's Transport Future - the transport white paper setting out the Scottish Executive's vision for an integrated transport system that will successfully meet the challenges of Scotland's transport future.

Thursday, June 19, 2008

Local Roads and Bridges - Scotland

The statutory responsibility for the network of local roads and bridges lies with individual local authorities. 94% of Scotland's roads (some 56,000km) are the responsibility of local authorities to manage and maintain. There are over 11,000 bridges owned by local authorities in Scotland.

The trunk road network is the responsibility of Transport Scotland.

Management and Maintenance

In 2002, all 32 local authorities in Scotland agreed to undertake a rolling survey of the condition of the local road network. The Scottish Executive fully supports this work, which is being co-ordinated by the Society of Chief Officers of Transportation in Scotland (SCOTS).

The survey will operate on a four-year rolling cycle, with all A roads covered annually, while a proportion of B, C and unclassified roads will be surveyed each year, leading to full coverage over the four years.

The results of the survey will provide an overall view of the condition of the network, as well as detailed information to allow local authorities to assess the need for repairs and maintenance, and identify future priorities for investment in improvements.


Funding for local roads, both capital and revenue, is provided through the overall local government finance settlement, under formula arrangements agreed with COSLA (Convention of Scottish Local Authorities).

This funding is not "ring-fenced" and it is up to each council to decide the priority of local roads and bridges amongst its other spending plans.

However, Scottish Ministers have acknowledged the need to address a long-standing backlog of repairs and improvements works and have allocated extra funding to local authorities to address this. Revenue funding to local authorities increased by £60 million per annum in 2006-07 and 2007-08 as part of the Spending Review 2004.

Local authorities will be encouraged to engage with the new Regional Transport Partnerships to have regionally important non-trunk roads projects prioritised in their regional transport strategies. The Scottish Executive has made available an additional £35 million for this purpose.

Power of the Local Authorities

Local road authorities have a range of powers, including compulsory purchase of land for road building, restrictions on and the stopping up of roads. These are mostly dealt with at local authority level, but where there are unresolved objections, they may be passed to Scottish Ministers for arbitration.

Local roads authorities are also responsible for the siting and maintenance of all road signs and markings on local roads. Signs and markings that can be used are contained in the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002. These Regulations are reserved to the UK Parliament although Scottish Ministers have powers to authorise non-prescribed signs or road markings in exceptional circumstances.

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

Transport & Works ( Scotland )

Introduction to TAWS

What is TAWS?

TAWS (Transport and Works (Scotland) ) is a new order making process which avoids the need for private Bills for transport related developments such as a new railway, a canal, tram system or any other form of guided transport system in Scotland.

TAWS and the Scottish Government

Applications for TAWS orders are made to the Scottish Ministers by (or on behalf of) the applicants of the scheme.

The Scottish Ministers are seeking proposals to come forward under the TAWS Order process that can demonstrate both a very positive benefit to the economy of Scotland and bring about improvements to the country's infrastructure. Transport is one of Scotland's most vital public services, influencing our economy, our communities, our environment, our health and our quality of life and Ministers attach significant importance to inviting new projects to come forward that will enhance the benefits of living and working in Scotland.

The Scottish Ministers also value greatly the public participation measures contained within the TAWS, which invites those who have an interest in proposals to offer their views, either of support or objection, at the earliest possible opportunity. This might come from people whose property or business is affected, or who may be concerned about the effect on the local environment. The purpose of the procedure is to ensure that Scottish Ministers come to an informed view on whether it is in the public interest to make the TAWS order.

The Scottish Ministers consider each application carefully and without bias. They make decisions only after considering all the comments made, sometimes through a public local inquiry. They can make TAWS orders (with or without amendments), or they can reject them.

Monday, June 9, 2008

Uk Buses and Taxis


The Government sets the national policy framework on buses and provides substantial funding direct to bus operators through the Bus Service Operator Grant. It also provides funds to local transport authorities in support of bus services

Mechanisms include initiatives such as the Public Transport Fund and Bus Route Development Grant and funding under the local government settlement to support socially necessary services.

* Individual Bus Operators

Individual bus operators use their commercial judgement as to the level and frequency of services to be provided. This market approach should encourage innovation and entrepreneurship and provide incentives for operators to provide new services and develop new types of service.

* Local Transport Authorities

Local transport authorities are responsible for ensuring that bus services in their areas meet local needs. Under the Transport Act 1985, they have a duty to intervene in the marketplace to identify and subsidise socially necessary services. Additionally, the Transport (Scotland) Act 2001 added further options, including statutory Quality Partnerships and Quality Contracts.

The aim of these options is to encourage local transport authorities to work in partnership with bus operators to deliver high quality bus services. Further information on partnership working is contained in Quality Partnerships and Quality Contracts: A Review of Current Practices and Future Aspirations. This report was published in May 2004 by the Association of Transport Co-ordinating Officers with the help and co-operation of the Confederation of Passenger Transport.

* Traffic Commissioner for the Scottish Traffic Area

The post of Traffic Commissioner, currently held by Joan Aitken, is a cross border public authority with reserved and devolved responsibilities. The post enforces good practice from bus service operators in particular that services are introduced, varied or cancelled in an orderly fashion.

The Traffic Commissioner's responsibilities include the licensing of bus operators, registration of local bus services and any disciplinary action against drivers of passenger carrying vehicles

Licensing issues are reserved to the Westminster Parliament. Registration of services is devolved and subject to the Public Service Vehicles (Registration of Local Services) (Scotland) Regulations 2001.


The licensing of taxis and private hire cars and their drivers is the responsibility of local authorities under powers set out in the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982 and associated Regulations. Within this legislative framework local authorities have discretion to decide the licensing arrangements appropriate for the needs and circumstances of their area.

Taxis and private hire cars play an important role filling gaps in overall transport provision particularly for those without access to a car. They offer a unique and personal service door to door, twenty four hours a day, seven days a week, often maintaining a service when other transport services have stopped for the night. Taxis and private hire cars can be particularly important for disabled people and those living in a rural area where bus or train may be not readily accessible.